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Contents 1 Overview 5 1. IR at baseband with Mbps, 2. FHSS at 2. Architecture has power-saving modes of operation built into the protocol to prolong the battery life of mobile equipment without losing network connectivity. Components Station the component that connects to the wireless medium. Supported services are authentication, deau- thentication, privacy, and delivery of the data.

A BSS does not generally refer to a particular area, due to the uncertainties of electromagnetic propagation. IBSS is typically short-lived network, with a small number of stations, that is created for a particular purpose.

When there is a AP, If one mobile station in the BSS must communicate with another mobile station, the communication is sent first to the AP and then from the AP to the other mobile station. This consume twice the bandwidth that the same communication. While this appears to be a significant cost, the benefits provided by the AP far outweigh this cost. One of them is, AP buffers the traffic of mobile while that station is operating in a very low power state. The APs perform this communication via an abstract medium called the distribution system DS.

Distribution System the distribution system DS is the mechanism by which one AP communicates with another to exchange frames for stations in their BSSs, forward frames to follow mobile stations from one BSS to another, and exchange frames with wired network. The wired network func- tion of physically connecting to the network cable is similar to the authentication and de-authentication services. Privacy is for data security. Data delivery is the reliable delivery of data frames from the MAC in one station to the MAC in one or more other station, with minimal duplication and minimal ordering.

It is necessary for DS to know where and how to deliver data to the mobile station. The association service is invoked once, when the mobile station enters the WLAN for the first time, after the application of power or when rediscovering the WLAN after being out of touch for a time. Mobile station uses repeatedly as it moves in ESS and by using reassocia- tion service, a mobile station provides information to the AP with which the mobile station was previously associated, to obtain frames.

A mobile may also use the disassociation service when it no longer require the services of the AP. AP invoke the distribution service to determine if the frame should be sent back into its own BSS, for delivery to a mobile station that is associated with the AP, or if the frame should be sent into the DS for delivery to another mobile station associated with a different AP or to a network destination.

The variables are authentication state and association state and used in a simple state machine that determines the order in which certain services must be invoked and when a station may begin using the data delivery service. A station may be authenticated with many different stations simultaneously. However, a station may be associated with only one other station at a time. This frames are to find an IEEE If a station is part of an IBSS, it is allowed to implement the data service in state 1.

In state2, additional frame types are allowed to provide the capability for a station in state 2 to implement the association, reassociation, and disassociation services. In state 3, all frame types are allowed and the station may use the data delivery service.

A station must react to frames it receives in each of the states, even those that are disallowed for a particular state. A station will send a deauthentication notification to any station with which it is not authenticated if it receives frames that are not allowed in state 1.

A station will send a disassociation notification to any station with which it is authenticated, but not associated, if it receives frames not allowed in state 2. These notifications will force the station that sent the disallowed frames to make a transition to the proper state in the state diagram and allow it to proceeed properly toward state 3.

AP2 would disassociate the associated stations. Figure 1. This reduces the inherent error rate of the medium, at the expense of additional bandwidth consumption without needing higher layer protocols. Since higher layer timeouts are often measured in seconds, it is much more efficient to deal with this issue at the MAC layer.

According to their transmission ranges; A and C can not hear each other and if they transmit at the same time to B, their frames could be corrupted.

C A B Figure 2. See Figure 2. These frames are atomic unit of the MAC protocol. In the source station, a failure of the frame exchange protocol causes the frame to be retransmitted. This is treated as a collision, and the rules for scheduling the retransmission are described in the section on the basic access mechanism.

To prevent the MAC from being monopolized attempting to deliver a single frame, there are retry counters and timers to limit the lifetime of a frame. The value of the dot11RTSThreshold attribute defines the length of a frame that is required to be preceded by the request to send and clear to send frames.

Default value of the threshold is and by definition, an AP is heard by all stations in its BSS and will never be a hidden node. There is also a lifetime timer associated with every frame the MAC attempts to transmit. Fewer tries for the shorter frames as compared to longer frames which is determined from the value of an attribute in the MIB, dot11RTSThreshold.

These counters are incremented in each unsuccessful transmission. Figure 2. When there is a transmission in the medium, the station will not begin its own transmission.

This is the CSMA portion of the access mechanism. If there is a collision and the transmission corrupted, the operation of the access mechanism works to ensure the correct reception of the information transmitted on the wireless medium. It will also increment the appropriate retry counter associated with the frame. The binary exponential backoff mechanism chooses a random number which represents the amount of time that must elapse while there are not any transmissions, i.

The random number resulting from this algorithm is uniformly distributed in a range, called the contention window, the size of which doubles with every attempt to transmit that is deferred, until a maximum size is reached for the range. Once a transmission is successfully transmitted, the range is reduced to its minimum value for the next transmission.

It is also unusual for all wireless devices in LAN to be able to communicate directly with all other devices. For this reason, IEEE The NAV is a value that indicates to a station the amount of time that remains before the medium will become available.

The NAV, then, is a virtual carrier sensing mechanism. By combining the virtual carrier sensing mechanism with the physical carrier sensing mechanism See Figure 2. PHY determines: the slot time. The SIFS is the shortest interval, followed by the slot time which is slightly longer.

The EIFS is much larger than any of the other intervals. It is used when a frame that contains errors is received by the MAC, allowing the possibility for the MAC frame exchanges to complete correctly before another transmission is allowed. Stations deliver MSDUs of arbitrary lengths up to bytes, after detecting that there is no other transmission in progress on the channel.

However, if two stations detect the channel as free at the same time, a collision occurs. The Before starting a transmission a station has to keep sensing the channel for an additional random time after detecting the channel as being idle for a minimum duration called DIFS, which is 34 us for the Only if the channel remains idle for this additional random time period, the station is allowed to initiate its transmission.

After carrier sensing, station backoffs and transmit the data. If there is a collision, corresponding retry counter increments and backoff interval increases. In every transmission station backoffs, this is put into standard in order to provide fairness among the stations.

The MAC will decrement the backoff value each time the medium is detected to be idle for an interval of one slot time. An example of a DCF operation is seen in Figure 2.

This access mechanism is called PCF. Generally, the PCF operates by stations requesting that the PC register them on a polling list, and the PC then regularly polls the stations for traffic while also delivering traffic to the stations. This period is called contention free because access to the medium is completely controlled by the PC and the DCF is prevented from gaining access to the medium. The CFP also alternates with a contention period where the normal DCF rules operate and all stations may compete for access to the medium.

The standard requires that the contention period be long enough to contain at least one maximum length frame and its acknowledgement. Beacon frames are required to be transmitted periodically for PC to compete for the medium.

The traffic in the CFP will consists of frames sent from the PC to one or more stations, followed by the acknowledgement from those stations. In addition, PC sends a contention-free-poll CF-Poll frame to those stations that have requested contention-free service See Figures 2. For medium efficient utilization, it is possible to piggyback both the acknowledgement and the CF-Poll onto data frames. Beacon contains the information about maximum expected length of the CFP.

The use of PIFS for those who did not receive beacon. There are problems with the PCF that led to the current activities to enhance the protocol. Among many others, those include the unpredictable beacon delays and unknown transmission durations of the polled stations. Depending on the wireless medium at this point of time, i.

The time the beacon frame is delayed, i. From the legacy Beacon frame delays of around 4. Seq Addr. Data FCS 1 2 3 Cont. Frame Type and Sub Type: identifies the function of the frame and which other MAC header fields are present in the frame.

Within each frame types there may be subparts. Zero for all other frames. From DS is 1 bit again and for the data types from AP to the mobile station. When both zero that means a direct communication between two mobile stations.

When both are on, for special case where an IEEE The frame is being sent from one AP to another, over the wireless medium. More Fragments Subfield: 1bit; indicates that this frame is not the last fragment of a data or management frame. Retry Subfield: 1bit; when zero, the frame is transmitted for the first time, otherwise it is a retransmission. Power Management Subfield: 1bit;mobile station announces its power management state; 0 means station is in active mode and 1 means the station will enter the power management mode.

The subfield should be same during the frame exchange in order for the mobile to change its power management mode. Frame exchange is 2or 4 way frame handshake including the ACK.

More Data Subfield: 1bit; AP uses to indicate to a mobile station that there is at least one frame buffered at the AP for the mobile station. Mobile polled by the PC during a CFP also may use this subfield to indicate to the PC that there is at least one more frame buffered at the mobile station to be sent to the PC. In multicast , AP may also set to indicate there are more multicast frames. Order Subfield: 1bit; indicates that the content of the data frame was provided to the MAC with a request for strictly ordered service.

All values larger than are reserved. When 15bit is zero the rest represents the remaining duration of a frame exchange to update NAV. In IBSS, it is random and locally administered by the starting station. This also give uniqueness. In the probe request frame and group address can be used. Always an individual address. Receiver Address RA : to which the frame is sent over wireless medium.

Individual or Group. Always individual address. SA field is considered by higher layers. Destination Address DA : Final destination. May not match RA because of the indirection. Sequence Control Field: 16bit: 4bit fragment number and 12bit sequence number. Allow receiving station to eliminate duplicate received frames. Sequen- tially incremented for the following MSDUs. The firs fragment is assigned to zero and incremented sequentially.

Frame Body Field: contains the information specific to the particular data or management frames. Variable length. As long as bytes and when ecrypted bytes. An application may sent byte with byte upper layer headers.

Duration information conveyed by this frame is a measure of the amount of time required to complete the four-way frame exchange. The value of the duration information is the time to transmit the subsequent data or management frame, an ACK frame, and two SIFS intervals, if the acknowledgement is of a data or management frame where the more fragments subfield of the frame control field is one.

RA is taken from the address 2 field of data, management or PS-Poll frame. First, the ACK frame transmits an acknowledgement to the sender of the immediately previous data, management, or PS-Poll frame that the frame was received correctly. Duration ID field contains a value, measured in microseconds from the end of the frame, sufficient to protect the transmission of a subsequent acknowl- edgement frame.

Address fields are dependent to the network and identified in Table 2. This is used in ACK. When a mobile station receive a frame by AP, it uses this field as the destination address to indicate the higher layer protocols. A frame received by AP from a mobile station will use this address as the destination address of the frame for DS forwarding decisions.

In the wireless DS, it contains the destination address of the frame that was originally received by the AP. The source address of the original AP is contained here. Never used in IBSS. ACK is for previously received data frame, which may not be associated with the address of the destination of the current frame. Null Function no data : This frame is a data frame with no frame body and used to allow a station that has nothing to transmit to be able to complete the frame exchange necessary for changing its power management state.

The sole purpose for this frame is to carry the power management bit in the frame control field to the AP, when a station changes to a low power operating state. ACK is more efficient since this frame is 29bytes long.

One of the four MAC frame types is dedicated to management frames. There are 11 distinct management frame types. Beacon: It is used to identify a BSS. The Beacon frame also conveys information to mobile stations about frames that may be buffered during times of low power operation. Capability Information: bit, it identifies the capabilities of the station.

The information elements in a Beacon frame are the service set identity SSID , the supported rates, one or more PHY parameter sets, an optional contention-free parameter set, an optional IBSS paramater set, and an optional traffic indication map. It contains SSID and the supported rates. The probe response contains nearly all the same information as a Beacon frame and includes the times- tamp, beacon interval, and capability information fixed fields. Authentication: The authentication frame is used to conduct a multiframe exchange between stations that ultimately results in the verification of the identity of each station to the other, within certain constraints.

The authentication frame includes three fixed fields. Deauthentication: The station uses to notify another station of the termination of an authentication rela- tionship. The frame includes only a single fixed field, the reason code. Association Request and Response: The mobile station request an association with a BSS and for the success or failure of that request is returned to the mobile station by the response.

The association request frame includes two fixed fields, the capability information field and the listen interval. There are also two information elements in the association request, the SSID and the supported rates. The association response frame includes three fixed fields: the capability information, the status code, and the association ID.

There is one information element in the association response, the supported rates. Reassociation Request and Response: Mobile station that has been associated with a BSS and is now associating with another BSS with the same SSID uses the reassociation request that includes the same information as an association request frame, with the addition of a current AP address fixed field.

The reassociation response frame is identical to the association response frame. The value is in the least significant 14 bits. The most 2 bit is set to 1. Authentication Algorithm Number: bit, it contains a number identifying the authentication algo- rithm to be used to complete an authentication transaction. Authentication Transaction Sequence Number: bit, It tracks the progress of an authentication trans- action.

The number is increased sequentially with each authentication frame exchanged during the transaction. Beacon Interval: bit, It indicates the typical amount of time that elapses between Beacon frame trans- missions. The CF pollable an CF-Poll request subfields are significant in Beacon, probe response, association request, association response, reassociation request, and reassociation response frames.

A mobile station will set these subfields in association request and reassociation request frames to indicate its contention- free capability and to request that it be placed on the polling list of the PC. An AP will set these subfields in Beacon, probe response, association response, and reassociation re- sponse frames to indicate the capability of the PC. The privacy subfield is transmitted by the AP in Beacon, probe response, association response, and reassociation response frames.

The short preamble subfield if transmitted by an AP or a mobile station in an IBSS in Beacon, probe response, association response, and reassociation response frames to indicate the availability of the short preamble option when using an IEEE When set to 1, short preambles is allowed, when 0, it is not allowed.

The channel agility subfield indicates that the station is using the channel agility option of IEEE Current AP Address: 6 bytes, It holds the address of the AP with which a mobile station is currently associated, when that mobile station is attempting to reassociate.

If the reassociation is successful, the new AP uses that AP address to contact and retrieve frames that may have been buffered there for the mobile station. Listen Interval: bit, The listen interval is used by a mobile station to indicate to an AP how long the mobile station may be in low power operating modes and unable to receive frames. The value is in units of the Beacon interval. Reason Code: bit, It indicates the reason for an unsolicited notification of disassociation or deauthenti- cation.

Status Code: bit, It indicates the success or failure of a requested operation. When the length is zero, that means it is broadcasted. The broadcast identity is used in probe request frames when the mobile station is attempting to discover all IEEE Supported Rates: bytes, Each byte represents a single rate where the lower 7 bits of the byte repre- senting the rate value, and the most significant bit indicating whether the rate is mandatory or not.

The supported rates element is transmitted in Beacon, probe response, association request, association response, reassociation request, and reassociation response frames. If a station does not support all of the rates indicated to be mandatory, it may not associate with the BSS.

FH Parameter Set: 7 bytes, two byte element ID, length, the element contains the dwell time, hop set, hop pattern, and hop index. Traffic Indication Map: bytes, This element carries information about frames that are buffered at the AP for stations in power saving modes of operation.

DTIM count is an integer value that counts down to zero. This value represents the number of Beacon frames that will occur before the delivery of multicast frames. DTIM period is the number of Beacon frames between multicast frame deliveries. The DTIM period has a significant effect on the maximum power savings a station may achieve. Challenge Text: bytes, In addition to the element ID and length fields, this element carries one more field, the challenge text. When a frame is fragmented, the sequence control field of the frame header indicates the placement of the individual fragment among the set of fragments.

The more fragments bit in the frame control field indicates whether the current fragment is the last fragment. The fragments are transmitted in burst and they do not need to compete for the medium again since the medium is reserved for the burst and duration is updated in every fragment and ACK. The IEEE The receiver decrypt the frame and passes to the higher layer protocols. Only the frame body is encrypted, this leaves the complete MAC header of the data frame, and the entire frame of other frame types, unencrypted and available to even the casual eavesdroppers.

The encryption algorithm used in IEEE It is symmetric since the same key and algorithm are used for both encryption and decryption. Unlike a block chipper that processes a fixed number of bytes, a stream chipper is an algorithm that can process an arbitrary number of bytes. However, key distribution or key negotiation is not mentioned in the standard left to the individual manufacturers of IEEE Secure placement of keys int the individual stations is a discussion in IEEE The first mechanism is a set of as many as four default keys.

The benefit of using a default key is that, once the station obtains the default keys, a station can communicate securely with all of the other stations in a BSS or ESS. The problem is they are widely distributed to many stations and may be more likely to be revealed. The second mechanism provided by IEEE Key mapping allows a station to create a key that is used with only one other station. If it is set false, all frames are sent without encryption. Encryption for specific destinations may only be disabled if a key mapping relationship exists with that destination.

A default key may be used to encrypt a frame only when a key mapping relationship does not exist between the sending and receiving station. If one or more default keys is available algorithm which is not defined in the standard chooses one of them.

The WEP header and trailer are appended to the encrypted frame body, the default key used to encrypt the frame is indicated in the KeyID of the header portion along with the initialization vector, and the integrity check value ICV in the trailer. Corresponding to the dot11PrivacyInvoked attribute controlling the sending of frames, the attribute1 controls the reception of encrypted frames.

When it is false, all frames is accepted, whether they are encrypted or not, otherwise only the encrypted ones will be received. WEP associate with two counters. The dot11UndecryptableCount reflects the number of encrypted frames that were received by the station that could not be decrypted.

The dot11UndecrptableCount indicates that an attack to deny service may be in progress, if the counter is increasing rapidly.

The dot11ICVErrorCount can indicate that an attack to determine a key is in progress, if this counter is increasing rapidly. Figures 2. Station 1 is the PC polling station 2.

Station 4 is hidden to station 1 and does not detect the beacon frame; it continues to operate in DCF. An example of this type of user is the common microwave oven. The microwave oven operates in the 2. RFID tags are usually small, cheap, unpowered devices that receive their power from a microwave beam and then return a unique identifier. RFID tags are used to track retail inventory, identify rail cars, and many other uses. This would be somewhat equivalent to attempting to run IEEE Finally, there are other IEEE Another challenge is mobility.

Dealing with mobility while making all of the expected LAN services available is a problem to be solved by MAC management. And power management is the final challenge, conserving the energy stored in the batteries to allow the equipment to operate for as long as possible must be built into the WLAN protocol and controlled by MAC management.

Authentication can be used between any two stations. There are two authentication algorithm. No verification is needed. This algorithm depends on both stations having a copy of a shared WEP key.

Beginning the authentication process, station A sends its identity assertion to station B. Station B responds to the assertion with an assertion of its own and a request to station A to prove its identity by correctly encrypting the challenge text. Station A encrypts the challenge text using the normal WEP encryption rules, including use of default and key mapping keys, and sends the result back to station B.

Station B decrypts the frame using the appropriate key and returns an authentication management frame to station A with the success of failure of the authentication indicated. If the authentication is successful, the standard says that each station is authenticated to the other. A station may authenticate with any number of other stations. Always mobile performs the encryption operation on the challenge text and AP somehow occupied in a more privileged position.

This leaves the IEEE A rogue could then simply complete normal frame handshake procedures and the mobile stations would be the victims of a denial of service attack.

A more active rogue could use more subtle means to attempt to gain access to the content of higher layer protocol frames containing user names, passwords, and other sensitive data. If the data is encrypted using WEP, it is highly unlikely that the rogue could successfully decrypt the information. Associ- ation may only be accomplished after a successful authentication has been completed.

The association request includes information on the capabilities of the station, such as the data rates it supports, the high rate PHY options it supports, its contention-free capabilities, its support of WEP, and any request for contention-free services.

The association request also includes information about the length of time that the station may be in a low power operating mode. The policies and algorithms used by the AP to make the decision of accepting the association request of the mobile station are not described in the standard. Some things that may be considered are supporting all of the required data rates and PHY options, requiring contention-free services beyond the ability of the AP to support, long periods in low power operation that require excessive buffer commitments from the AP, and the number of stations currently associated.

Because the standard does not specify what information may be considered by the AP when deciding to grant an association, information not local to the AP may also be used, such as load balancing factors and availability of other APs nearby.

When the AP responds to the mobile station with an association response, the response includes a status indication. If the request fails, the reason for that failure is in the status indication. Once a station is associated, the AP is responsible for forwarding data frames from the mobile station toward their destination.

If the destination of the frame is entirely outside the ESS, the AP will forward the frame to the portal, the exit from the DS to the rest of the network. A portal may be an AP, a bridge, or a router. Because IEEE The entire IEEE Similarly, when a data frame is sent from outside the ESS to a mobile station, the portal must forward the frame to the correct AP, the one that has the mobile station associated in its BSS. Once a station is successfully associated, it may begin exchanging data frames with the AP.

When the mobile loose contact with the AP, the mobile station must begin a new association in order to continue exchanging data frames. Because the DS must maintain information about the location of each mobile station and because data frames may have been sent to an AP with which the mobile station no longer can communicate, a mobile station will use a reassociation request after its initial association.

The AP that has just granted the reassociation normally communicates with the AP with which the station was last associated to cause the termination of the old association. In this case, the receiver must examine more than the destination address to make correct receive decisions. In addition to the destination address, these frames also include the BSS identifier. A station must use both the destination address and the BSSID when making receive decisions, according to the standard.

Described in Chapter 2. For a station to enter a low power operating state, a state where it has turned off the receiver and transmitter to conserve power, the station must successfully complete a data frame handshake with another station with the power management bit set in the frame header. In the power saving state, the station must wake up to receive every Beacon transmission. The station must also stay awake for a period of time after each Beacon, called the announcement or ad hoc traffic indication message window ATIM.

The earliest the station may reenter the power saving state is at the conclusion of the ATIM window. The reason that a station must remain awake during the ATIM window is that other stations that are attempting to send frames to it will announce those frames during the ATIM window. If the power saving station receives an ATIM frame, it must acknowledge that frame and remain awake until the end of the next ATIM window, following the next Beacon frame, in order to allow the other station to send its data frame.

A station desiring to send a frame to another station in an IBSS, the standard requires that the sending station estimate the power saving state of the intended destination. How the sending station creates its estimate is not described in the standard. If the station determines that the destination is in power saving state, then the station delays its transmission until it has received an acknowledgement of an ATIM frame.

Multicast frames must also be announced by the sending station during the ATIM window before they may be transmitted. The ATIM is sent to the same multicast address as the data frame that will be sent subsequently.

Because the ATIM is sent to a multicast address, no acknowledgement will be generated, nor is one expected. Any stations that wish to receive the announced multicast data frame must stay awake until the end of the next ATIM window, after the next Beacon frame. The power management mechanism puts a slightly greater burden on the sending station than on the receiving station. Sending stations must send an announcement frame in addition to the data frame it desires to deliver to the destination.

Sending stations must buffer the frames to be sent to the power saving destination until the destination awakens and acknowledges the ATIM. Each transmission of an ATIM consumes power at the sending station.

This power management mechanism allows much greater power savings for mobile stations than does the mechanism used in IBSSs. This is so because the AP assumes all of the burden of buffering data frames for power saving stations and delivering them when the stations request, allowing the mobile stations to remain in their power saving state for much longer periods.

Mobile station informs the AP, in its association request, of the number of beacon periods that the station will be in its power saving mode, to awaken at the expected time of a Beacon transmission to learn if there are any data frames waiting, and to complete a successful frame handshake with the AP, while the power management bit is set, to inform the AP when the station will enter the power saving mode. The mobile station must also awaken at times determined by the AP, when multicast frames are to be delivered.

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CG Vyapam SI. Assam Police Constable. DDA Patwari. DHS Assam Grade 3. CG Vyapam Stenographer. Telangana High Court Process Server. This amendment introduces mechanisms to enable session continuity in the absence of unique MAC address-to-STA mapping. For STAs in an ESS that use randomized or changing MAC addresses, this amendment preserves the ability to provide customer support, conduct network diagnostics and troubleshooting, and detect device arrival in a trusted environment.

Learn More This amendment also defines modifications to the IEEE Minor changes have been made throughout the document. It also incorporates Amendments 1 through 8 including a corrigendum. It also incorporates Amendments 1 to 10 published in to This amendment specifies enhancements to the IEEE The purpose of this amendment is to improve the IEEE This supplement to IS The procedures include the transport of voice, audio, and video over IEEE This amendment introduces the concept of a security association into IEEE Finally, it specifies how IEEE It enables higher layer functionalities to provide overall end-to-end solutions.

The main goals of this amendment are aiding network discovery and selection, enabling information transfer from external networks, enabling emergency services, and interfacing subscription service provider networks SSPNs to IEEE

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