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Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. English pronunciation rules. Continue Reading Download. Related Papers. Comparative Morphology of Standard and Egyptian Arabic. John J. Alignment, syllable and metrical Structure in German. Regularizing the Canaanite Shift. Middle English Phonology. Prosodic morphology The status of mute 'e'.

Pronunciation of stressed vowels 1. When a single vowel is under stress, you have a choice between two different values: - the short value, typically used before a before a final consonant : sad, beg, slim, pot, put - the long value, or alphabetic value the vowel is pronounced as in the alphabet: A, E, I, O, U typically used before a single consonant and a final �e : cake, these, time, rose, duke 2. The short value is also normally used: a anywhere, before two consonants : sadder, letter, slimming, pottery, putting.

A digraph, which consists of two successive written vowels pronounced as one, almost always corresponds to a long vowel or a diphthong: plain, re'ceive, be'lieve, bam'boo, shout, fraud, 'author, weigh Pronunciation of unstressed vowels 5.

In English, most of the energy is given to stressed syllables. As a result, in an unstressed syllable, a written vowel is often reduced it is also said to be weakened.

That sound known as a schwa is very weak indeed, you hear it very faintly in the first syllable of the word about, or the last one of China. The weak value for �i- is the sound very weak too heard in the last syllable of city. The schwa is used For unstressed -a- and -o- : about, China, ornament, collision, abandon, pilot For -e- after the main stress: 'parent, em'ployment Sometimes also for -u- : suc'cess, 'circus 7. The weak value for �i- is used in words such as 'citizen, 'beautiful, im'plicit, i'nimitable but also for �e- before the main stress to pre'sent, to de'tect, to de'lay, to re'turn, to pre'pare and in �ed after �t- or �d- : 'wanted, de'tected, de'fended, 'landed 8.

In the unstressed final syllable of a non-verb, an �a- followed by one consonant and a final -e generally reduces to the weak value of �i- or to the schwa: Ex. This reminds one of the contrast between the verb to ex'periment where the vowel in the last syllable is not reduced , and the noun an ex'periment in which the final vowel is reduced.

Always remember that one of the keys to successful pronunciation is to give all your energy to stressed vowels. As far as unstressed vowels are concerned, the more you neglect them, the better.

Grammatical words, such as prepositions, pronouns, auxiliaries, conjunctions and articles, very often have, beside their full phonetic form, a reduced form, used when they are unstressed: She can tell them he was from Paris. However, an isolated preposition is never reduced: Where do you come from? What are you waiting for? What are you looking at? An isolated auxiliary is not reduced either: I'll do it if I can. A vowel may not reduce in an unstressed syllable a before �r- : car'nation, per'cipient, flir'tation, or'ganic, tur'bidity.

Before a final -e, the presence of an �r- has a different effect : care, prepare mere, interfere fire, expire more, galore pure, a'llure In all such cases, the stressed vowel is pronounced, not separately, but, so to speak, jointly with the �r-, and the result is always a long vowel, which can be a diphthong or even a triphthong e.

In the following words, the normally alphabetic value of the stressed vowel is affected in the same way by the presence of �r- : gra'mmarian, mys'terious, no'torious, 'curious. This simply means that grammarian contains the same sound as mare etc. Compare the following words: wash rhymes with posh same sound in want, what, squander, squash, squatter, swan, wander warm rhymes with storm same sound in wart, swarm, wharf, warden, warble word rhymes with bird same sound in work, world, worse, worm In words borrowed from other languages, a vowel can take its so-called foreign value, which is always a long vowel or a diphthong.

Many words borrowed from romance languages, such as Italian or Spanish, and which have a final vowel -a, -i or �o, but not �y preceded by one of the consonants t, d, n, s, or z, have the main stress on the last syllable but one the penultimate , and the stressed vowel often has its foreign value, or sometimes its alphabetic value as in the last word.

Mar'tini, mos'quito, Argen'tina, balle'rina, ba'nana, po'tato Word Stress Primary stress and secondary stress As we saw earlier, grammatical words may be unstressed. But apart from that, every word noun, verb, adjective etc. Quizzes after every lesson. Simple tips and tricks to avoid the most commonly misspelled words and pronunciation mistakes. Get Complete English Spelling and Pronunciation Rules and instantly start spelling and speaking with confidence.

The secret about spelling is that good spellers don't just rely on memory-they know the rules and patterns that tell them exactly how a word should be spelled and pronounced. Complete English Spelling and Pronunciation Rules is the only pronunciation and spelling guide that gives you direct access to all of those rules-and the many, many exceptions-with simple, easy-to-remember methods to handle every word that comes your way.

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