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He made many friends and acquaintances, some of whom went on to become important writers and eventually became active in the Bloomsbury Group. After graduating from Cambridge, Forster traveled in Italy and Greece. These experiences further broadened his outlook, and he decided to become a writer.

He became an instructor at London's Working Men's College in and remained with them for two decades. The two developed a close friendship, and Forster became curious about India. In Forster visited India for the first time, with some friends from Cambridge University, and spent some time with Masood there. He stayed in India for six months and saw the town of Bankipore, located on the Ganges River in northeast India.

Bankipore became the model for Chandrapore. Forster also saw the nearby Barabar Caves, which gave him the idea for the Marabar Caves. While in India he wrote first drafts of seven chapters of a new novel that would become A Passage to India.

However, after returning to England he put the work aside and instead wrote Maurice, a novel about a homosexual love affair. Because its theme was considered very controversial at the time, Forster decided not to publish this book during his lifetime.

In he made a second visit to India, where he spent six months as private secretary to the Maharajah of Dewas Senior, an independent Moslem state. He gathered more material about India, and after returning to England he finished writing A Passage to India, which he dedicated to Masood. Forster found the writing process difficult and feared that the book would be a failure.

Although he continued to write short stories, essays, and radio programs, he turned away from the novel form. Forster died of a stroke on June 7, , in Coventry, England.

Today, his literary reputation remains high, and all of his novels, except The Longest Journey, have been adapted into films. Forster explores the relationships that ensue when Dr. Moore and Miss Adela Quested, two recently arrived Englishwomen. In the opening scene, Dr.

Aziz is involved in a discussion about whether or not it is possible for an Indian to be friends with an Englishman. The conversation is interrupted by a message from the Civil Surgeon, Major Callendar, who requests Dr.

Aziz's Immediate assistance. Aziz makes his way to Callendar's compound but arrives only to be told that the Civil Surgeon is out. He is delighted by her kind behavior and accompanies her back to the Chandrapore Club. Moore's son, City Magistrate Ronny Heaslop, quickly learns of his mother's meeting with the Indian doctor. But the event is not a great success and Adela thinks her countrymen mad for inviting guests and then not receiving them amiably.

One of the few officials who does make a genuine effort to make the party work is Mr. Fielding, the Principal of the Government College. He hosts a gathering of his own a couple of days later, and it is then that Dr. Aziz first meets Adela and invites her and Mrs. Moore to visit the nearby Marabar Caves. It is also on this afternoon that a friendship begins to develop between Aziz and Fielding.

An elephant transports the party into the hills and a picnic breakfast awaits AZIZ'S guests when they reach their goal near the caves.

However, things begin to change when they visit the first cave. Mrs Moore nearly faints when she feels herself crammed in the dark and loses sight of Adela and Dr. She feels something strike her face and hears a terrifying echo: The echo in a Marabar cave is.

Everything exists, nothing has value. The echo lingers in Mrs. Moore's mind and begins "in some indescribable way to undermine her hold on life. Meanwhile, Aziz and Adela are en route to visit more of the caves. Aziz is momentarily annoyed and slips into one of the caves "to recover his balance.

Thinking that she has merely gone off to meet Ronny, Aziz returns to the camp and learns that Adela has unexpectedly driven away. The remaining members of the expedition take the train back to Chandrapore. Upon their return, Dr. Aziz is arrested and charged with making insulting advances to Miss Quested in the Marabar Caves. That evening, there is a meeting at the Club and Fielding stands alone against his countrymen by stating his belief that Aziz is innocent.

Adela remains ill for several days, hovering "between common sense and hysteria" and, like Mrs. Moore, is plagued by the sound of the echo. She begins to have doubts about what happened in the cave and eventually tells Ronny that she may have made a mistake. Moore supports Adela's belief that Aziz is innocent but Ronny insists that the trial must proceed and sends his mother back to England. When Adela takes the stand, she feels herself returned to the Marabar Hills and finds the exact reply to all the questions put to her.

However, she is unable to say for sure whether Aziz followed her into the cave; she could see herself in one of the caves, but could not locate Aziz. Finally she tells the court that she has made a mistake and that Dr. Aziz never followed her into the cave.

The Superintendent withdraws the charges and Aziz is released "without one stain on his character. Moore's death at sea and can no longer bear Ronny's company. He eventually breaks off their engagement because marrying her would now ruin his career.

Before her voyage back to England, Adela is subjected to one final adventure when her servant, Antony, attempts to blackmail her by claiming she was Fielding's mistress. By this time, Fielding, who believes that Adela should not suffer for her mistake, has managed to convince Aziz to renounce his right to monetary compensation. Aziz begins to regret that decision when he hears the "naughty rumour" concerning his two friends.

The misunderstanding is complicated when Aziz learns that Fielding is also returning to England. Aziz and Professor Godbole are both living in Mau, a town several hundred miles west of the Marabar Hills and which is currently in the midst of Hindu religious celebrations. Fielding had sent his old friend a letter explaining all the details about his wedding to Stella Moore, Mrs.

Moore's daughter, but Aziz never read it. As a result, he still thinks that Fielding has married Adela. All misunderstandings are finally cleared up when they meet, but Aziz does not care who Fielding has married; his heart is now with his own people and he wishes no Englishman or Englishwoman to be his friend. Later that day, Fielding and his wife borrow a boat in order to watch the religious procession. Aziz runs into Ralph Moore and brings h1m out on the water too, thereby repeating the gesture of hospitality he had intended to make through the visit to the Marabar Caves two years earlier.

At the height of the ceremony, the two boats collide and all are thrown into the water. The accident erases all bitterness between Fielding and Aziz and the two go back "laughingly to their old relationship. They talk about politics and Aziz foresees the day when India shall finally get rid of the English. Then, Aziz tells Fielding, "you and I shall be friends.

Even though it is in decay with houses sometimes even falling down, it persists. However, as one moves inland, it improves. A more prosperous housing area is near the railway station. On the second rise, it improves dramatically. Here is where the civil service employees of the occupying British government live. There are offices, a club, and beautiful gardens. Part 1: Chapter 1 Analysis Chandrapore is the setting for this story. The poverty of the lower tier of the city is emblematic of the lives of most of the native Indians.

The second tier indicates that there are areas of the city that are not so impoverished; but only the upper tier, the one occupied by the British occupiers, exhibits any level of affluence. The date is ambiguous. Some critics say that it reflects the India of , Forster's first visit. However, others feel that it is between and his second visit in , when the unrest and resentment against the British that eventually led to Indian independence had reached a fever pitch.

In , British troops had fired on unarmed protesters at Amritsar in Punjab Province, killing a large number. This incident became known as the Amritsar Massacre.

By the time Forster visited in , the feelings of the Indians were much more volatile than are pictured in A Passage to India. It's reasonable to assume that the setting is sometime between and Aziz, has two close friends, Mahmoud Ali, a lawyer, and Hamidullah, the leading trial lawyer in Chandrapore.

All three are Muslims. Aziz's wife is dead, and he has three small children who live with their maternal grandmother. He lives meagerly so he can send his salary to the grandmother. The three friends are having dinner at the home of Hamidullah and the conversation is about the arrogance of the occupying British and their insufferable treatment even of Indian intellectuals and professionals.

As they finish their meal, a messenger brings a note asking Dr. Aziz to come to the bungalow of Major Callendar, the Civil Surgeon, and the head of the hospital. He goes on his bicycle to the major's home as requested only to find that he is not there and that he has left no message. As he leaves the major's domicile, two British women come out and commandeer his tonga. Aziz tells the driver, "Go, I will pay you tomorrow," and calls after the women, "You are most welcome, ladies.

He leaves his business card and asks a servant to secure him a tonga, but the servant tells him they are all at the club, so Dr. Aziz decides to walk. On the way, he stops off at a mosque to rest and seek comfort in a house of worship of his own religion. As he sits there, he spies a woman who has been in the mosque, which makes him angry. He tells her that she has no right there, she should have taken off her shoes, that this is a holy place for Muslims. She replies that she has, in fact, removed her shoes and left them at the entrance.

He apologizes for speaking so unkindly and tells her that women rarely come except to be seen by others. She replies, "That makes no difference. God is here. He guesses that she is newly arrived, and she acquiesces.

He offers to help her any way that he can and offers to find a carriage, but she tells him that she is only going to the club. Then he finds that she has come to visit her son, the City Magistrate, Mr. Heaslop, and that she has two other children by another marriage with a different last name. He tells her that he has the same number of children.

She tells him she doesn't care much for Mrs. Callendar, which unleashes a torrent of complaint from him. Not only did the major summon him from his evening with this friends and then not bother to stay until he arrived, but also Mrs.

Callendar was one of the women who had so rudely taken his tonga. He tells Mrs. Moore that she is different because she has cared enough to listen. He escorts her back to the club, and she says that if she were a member, she would invite him in, but he tells her that Indians are not allowed, even as guests.

Part 1: Chapter 2 Analysis This is an important chapter because it sets many things in motion that are significant later. First of all, the plot hinges on Aziz and his disastrous interaction with the Englishwoman who is here to pursue an engagement with Mrs.

Moore's son and who is accompanying Mrs. Thirdly, the plot comes full circle in the last section of the story when Aziz meets Mrs. Moore's other two children in Mau, several hundred miles from Chandrapore. Moore has come to Chandrapore to accompany Adela Quested, who is sort of betrothed to her son. Adela desires to see the "real India," so Ronny Mrs.

Moore's son, the City Magistrate asks the schoolmaster of the Government College, Cyril Fielding, how they might best do that. He recommends, rather flippantly, that they should try seeing Indians. The women laugh at such an idea.

Turton, the collector, steps in and tells her she can see any type she likes. However, she doesn't want that kind of superficial contact, so the collector recommends that they have a Bridge Party, described as an occasion where local citizens are invited to the club to a sort of reception.

She says that Fielding, the schoolmaster, also isn't "pukka," so the two of them should hit it off. Moore tells them she has gone to the mosque, and her son chides her, telling her about the snakes. She says that the young man she met there had said the same thing, and she tells them about her conversation with Dr. Aziz and how much she enjoyed visiting with him.

Ronny is indignant that the doctor had attempted to correct her about her shoes. Ronny jumps on this and says he will report this to the Major. She objects, saying it was a private conversation.

He says there's always something behind every remark the natives make. She makes him promise not to pass it on, and he reluctantly agrees. After they say goodnight, she ponders her encounter with Dr. Aziz and feels that he has been slandered and misunderstood.

Part 1: Chapter 3 Analysis This discussion between Mrs. Moore and Ronny about her meeting with Aziz is important because Forster uses it to set the stage for later action. The attitude of the British expatriates toward the native Indians is introduced here.

We are also introduced here to the viciousness of the women, which will play a significant role in the action. They are cynical and resentful of the empty attempt to pretend an interest and concern in the Indian community, but Nawab disputes their attitude, saying he welcomes and appreciates the gesture.

However, we see in the closing chapters that he abandons any effort to play a medial, mediating role when their behaviors go too far. As they stand discussing Cousin Kate, a play put on at the club by some of the members, Mrs. Moore notices how conventional her son has become. He had scorned this play when they had seen it in London, but now he is praising it and pretending it is a good play to avoid hurting anyone's feelings.

It has been reviewed rather unkindly locally, "the sort of thing no white man could have written," says one of the women. Although the play was praised, the following sentence appeared in it: "Miss Derek, though she charmingly looked her part, lacked the necessary experience, and occasionally forgot her words.

She is here visiting with the McBrydes of the police and had stepped in to fill a gap at the last moment. Mostly, they conclude that they only come to curry favor. The Anglo women resent having to make the effort to meet any of them and don't understand why the women bother to come.

When Mrs. Moore asks who the women are, the answer is, "You're superior to them, anyway. Don't forget that. You're superior to everyone in India except one or two of the Ranis, and they're on an equality. Moore and Adela are interested in visiting with the women but feel they don't know the language; but one of the women, speaking very good English because she has lived in London, speaks up.

However, Adela's and Mrs. Moore asks one of the women whether they might call upon her, and she agrees, but they have trouble arriving at a date for the visit. Her husband intervenes and tells them to come on Thursday. He will send his carriage to get them. Cyril Fielding, the principal at the college, visits with Mrs. Moore and Adela and invites them to tea. He is ashamed and angry that the Indians have been invited to the party and have been treated so badly, especially by the women.

Since they want to meet some members of the Indian community, he will invite Dr. Aziz, whom Mrs. Moore met at the mosque, and an old professor, who sings Indian music. Moore and Ronny discuss Adela. She feels that he should be spending more time with her alone. Adela feels that the Anglos do not behave pleasantly to the Indians. He says they are not here to behave pleasantly; they are simply here to keep the peace.

Moore is annoyed at his attitude. She thinks the Englishmen pose as gods, which Mrs. Moore disapproves; she says that India is a part of the earth and God puts people on earth to be pleasant to each other.

Ronny does not disapprove of religion; he just doesn't want it to attempt to influence his life. Part 1: Chapter 5 Analysis Forster carries even further his depiction of the attitudes of the British interlopers toward the native Indians.

We feel his indignation in this chapter. Cyril Fielding is introduced in this chapter, and we can see already that he is a mediating force, and a character the author is using to show that the gap between the cultures can be bridged by decency and an interest in the Indians as human beings. This has already been introduced in the encounter between Mrs. Moore and Aziz. Later, we will find that Fielding, who is a sympathetic character, is not religious, so it serves the author's purpose to show Ronny, who does not come off very well in the story, as also indifferent to religion.

The contrast indicates that it is not whether or not one is religious that determines character, but the choices one makes with regard to relationships to others. Aziz did not go to the Bridge Party. Major Callendar is angry because he did not come when summoned and didn't understand that his bicycle had broken down in front of the Cow Hospital, which was not on the way from Dr. Aziz's residence. What the Major didn't understand was that educated Indians visit one another constantly and that Dr.

Aziz had been at Hamidullah's house when he received the summons. Aziz is amused by the behavior of the Anglos most of the time; he knows that he is competent and indispensable, so he doesn't take them too seriously.

However, Dr. Panna Lal, an older doctor who works with Aziz, had felt that they should go to the party. But when the time came, Aziz felt that he could not bear the mocking of the English women. It was the anniversary of his wife's death, and he is still dealing with his grief. He is very unhappy. Instead he goes to Hamidullah's house and borrows his horse and plays polo.

When he returns home, he finds the invitation from Mr. Fielding to tea and is pleased. He looks forward to meeting the educator and getting to know him. Fielding is over the age of forty, has experienced a lot of life, and is devoted to education.

He feels that the segregationist attitudes of the British leaders here are evidence of stupidity. Actually, the men are more tolerant of him because of his good heart and strong body.

It's the women who feel threatened by him. He has found that he can be in with the Indians and still be friends with the Englishmen, but not the Englishwomen, who never come to the college except for official functions. Aziz comes early and the two hit it off right away. The Muslims don't care much for the Brahmans, but Dr.

Godbole is accepted because of his sincerity. Aziz would have had trouble visiting with the women if either had been young and pretty; as it is, Mrs.

Moore is old and Adela is plain, so he enjoys the conversation. In an effort to understand, they ask him to explain why the Indian lady and gentleman who had invited them to come and visit and were going to send a carriage did not follow through. Everyone is encouraging them to make nothing of it, but Aziz says it's because they are Hindus and have no idea of society. Besides, he tells them, they were probably ashamed of their house. Without giving it much thought, Aziz invites them to his house.

Then he remembers that it is not fit to invite anyone to visit. He gets carried away with the opportunity to talk to them and rattles on until Professor Godbole arrives. The old professor takes his tea at a distance from the others; he considers them outcastes. Aziz, the garrulous, is at it again, talking about everything and anything. The interest of the women in India turns him loose. He asks Adela why she doesn't just settle in India, to which she answers without thinking, "I'm afraid I can't do that," without realizing until later what the remark must have meant to Mrs.

Moore, who is expecting her to marry Ronny and settle down here. When Adela mentions that Aziz has invited them to his house, he changes the invitation to a trip to the Marabar Caves.

Ronny appears and demands that the two women come with him at once to a polo match at the club. Aziz is offended at the effrontery of the young magistrate and baits him. Ronny takes Fielding aside and complains about Adela being left alone with an Indian.

Ronny has broken up a pleasant gathering, and everyone is cross and uncomfortable as the women leave with him. There for about half a year, he visited the town of Bankipore, on the Ganges River, on which Chandrapore is presumed to be based. The Barabar caves are near Bankipore, and probably suggested the Marabar caves of the novel.

This story was published for the first time in The desire of Adela to see the real India is that of a tourist at this stage, and we can feel her frustration as her attempts seem to come to nothing. She just doesn't understand. Seeing her role as that of tourist, she naturally expects that she will "see" natives and sights. Her insensitivity is revealed here. What the Indians feel are what other native people feel when they are invaded by strangers and are viewed as curiosities.

They don't necessarily return the curiosity, and they are resentful of the depersonalizing. The Indians in Chandrapore have been conditioned, of course, by the arrogant and insensitive treatment of the invading British.

They certainly have no desire or curiosity to meet more of them. The likely fact is that the family that invited them to visit was possibly ashamed of their home as is Aziz reveals the cultural divide as represented in their living accommodations. The British at the station live well in their comfortable bungalows. The exploited natives are too embarrassed to invite them to their humble homes.

She does not care much for the person he has become here in this outpost. He is arrogant, rude, insensitive, and chauvinistic. His behavior at Mr. Fielding's house has made her very angry. He forbids them to go on this visit to the caves without British auspices. Moore asks to be dropped at the bungalow because she is tired out by the wrangling, and Adela also wants to be left at the house.

He forbids them to continue their efforts to try to meet Indians. When they are alone, she tells him that she will not marry him. He takes it in good humor, but she wants to discuss it. They agree to remain friends.

Nawab Bahadur sees them sitting and talking and offers them a little spin in his new car. She goes somewhat reluctantly, her interest in seeing India no longer so strong. While driving in their car, they are struck by an animal and have an accident, but are soon picked up by Nancy Derek in an official car belonging to the Indian state that she works for. Ronny and Adela have found themselves holding hands in the back seat of the two cars they were riding in and rethink their decision.

When they part, they are engaged to be married, and they go in to tell Mrs. Ronny apologizes for his behavior and for forbidding them to see India. There is little to indicate that this marriage has much of a chance. He is the modern Indian, we are led to believe. He has a new little car, and he is trying to help introduce Adela to India, as she has said she wants.

She has finally found an Indian who is willing to help her be a tourist. We see a decline here in Adela's enthusiasm for seeing the country, brought on at least in part by her frustrating efforts to work out a relationship with Ronny. Later in the novel, this lessening of her original urge to see the country will figure in the plot.

He feels the need for female companionship and decides to try to visit Calcutta to satisfy this need in a brothel. He ruminates that if Major Callendar had been an Indian, he would have understood this need and would have granted two or three days' leave to Calcutta without asking questions. Aziz is visited in his bed by all his friends, including Dr. Lal, on behalf of the Major. He checks his temperature and declares that he has a slight fever.

Then Fielding comes and Aziz is embarrassed by the poor conditions he lives in. There is a discussion about Providence, and Fielding shocks them by telling them that he doesn't believe in God. They ask whether in England most people are atheists, and Fielding replies that educated, thoughtful people are, for the most part. They ask him whether or not morality also declines, and he admits that it probably does. If this is the case, they ask, how is England justified in holding India? Fielding says he is here because he needed a job.

He can't tell them why England is here or whether she ought to be here. They assure him that they are glad he is here because he respects them, and they like to talk to him frankly like this. Part 1: Chapter 9 Analysis The plot in this story has several levels. We know by now that the British consider themselves superior to the Indians and have little respect or concern for the people they are supposed to be governing.

Adela's and Mrs. Moore's distaste for their attitudes and behavior emphasizes how wrong they are. Another conflict that Forster has set up is between religions. Aziz is Muslim and does not understand or feel comfortable with either Hindu or Christian. However, he does admire Professor Godbole, who, although he is of a superior caste and would be expected to look down on everyone else, is kind and friendly.

Moore sets herself apart by her kindness and her genuine interest in Aziz. She rises above the religious conflict and sets an example for how all of them might come together and live in peace. She is eventually venerated by the Hindus; and Aziz, a Muslim, never fails to admire her and hold her example up for himself and others. But now we have Fielding bringing a whole new force into this story.

His announcement that he is an atheist is incomprehensible to the company gathered in Aziz's miserable little home. It's important to remember that he is not well accepted in the Christian community, not because of his lack of faith but because of his disapproval of their attitudes and behaviors, which clearly violate Christian teachings. And again, Mrs. Moore is the one who rises above all of this and sets an example that should be followed by the others. It is April, and the oppressively hot weather sets in.

Part 1: Chapter 10 Analysis The heat is introduced deliberately by Forster as a character in this story albeit a minor one. Fielding tells him that he appreciates his showing him the picture but questions why. Aziz answers that because Fielding has shown him kindness, he considers him his brother, and his brothers were permitted to see her when she was alive.

He tells Fielding that he feels that kindness is the only hope for the building up of India. Aziz says he shows him the picture because he has nothing else. His children are with their grandmother, and he lives in a hovel. They talk about their lives and Englishwomen. Fielding says they are much nicer in England, that there's something that doesn't suit them out here.

Aziz asks him why he isn't married, and he replies that the lady he liked wouldn't marry him. They talk about Adela, and Aziz suggests that Fielding might marry her, but he replies that she is a prig and besides she is engaged to the city magistrate. Aziz feels that she is nice and sincere. He feels protective of Fielding. He says that he can't be too careful here because there are always spies and reprimands him for talking about God as he did.

He says the others will certainly report it and this is an awful place for scandal. He tells him that he might even lose his job. Fielding answers, "If I do, I do. I shall survive it. I travel light. It's the only thing he does believe in, he tells Aziz. Aziz now considers Fielding a friend, a brother. As is always true when two cultures come together, attitudes toward women are areas of disagreement.

In Aziz's Muslim culture, women are hidden away, not allowed to be seen. In sharp contrast, Adela is not only seen, but she expects to participate freely in interactions between the cultures. She does not realize that she is asking them to do something that is foreign to them, that makes them uncomfortable, and that only increases the already rather fragile relationships. As the story progresses, we will see that these efforts on her part are a catalyst for disaster. There are so many themes and threads in this story that it's impossible to pursue all of them in one analysis.

However, it is important to note here that friendship is one of those threads. His showing his wife's picture to Fielding is of major significance here. His desire for friendship cancels out his religious and cultural inhibitions. In the circular chamber, if a match is lit, it becomes apparent that the interior walls are a polished mirror. Part 2: Chapter 12 Analysis The Marabar caves are an essential component in the setting for this story. Whereas in Chandrapore we can see graphically the cultural levels with the British living on a tier above the other residents, the caves represent a complex spiritual force that will blast the action to its climax.

Just as the heat is written by Forster as a palpable character in this story, it would also be reasonable to call the caves a character. They seem to live and move and have their own being as the story progresses. Aziz hasn't followed through on his invitation to the caves. This is heard by a servant and intensified until, when it finally comes to Aziz's ears, he is led to believe that the ladies are deeply offended.

He is horrified, so he enlists Fielding to invite them to tea at the caves. Professor Godbole will also be invited. Ronny is not enthusiastic about it; in fact, now no one is enthusiastic about it, not even Adela. Nevertheless, the die is cast, and so the party is planned.

Preparations are complicated, what with arranging transportation and managing all the food restrictions of a Brahman, a Muslim, and the ladies. He has arranged for many servants to accompany them. They are to leave very early in the morning, long before daylight. The women arrive unaccompanied by Fielding, which distresses Aziz; however, the women treat him with kindness, and he is touched. Ronny has sent his own servant with the women, but they don't like him and send him away.

Aziz is distraught, but Mrs. Moore soothes him. Adela joins in, so they are off. Aziz asks Mohammed Latif, a relative and servant of his, "by the way, what is in these caves?

Why are we all going to see them? Part 2: Chapter 13 Analysis Life in the Indian community seems to be largely driven by gossip. The servants to the British are expert spies, and once they have a tidbit, it is blown out of proportion until it frequently creates crises. The invitation to the tea party is an example of this. Moore and Adela have reached the place where their enthusiasm for seeing the "real" India has pretty much run its course.

This characteristic of the Indians seems never to be comprehended or taken into account by the British occupiers. The "snowballing" of this rumor that becomes an invitation foreshadows the coming tornado that is set off by this party, and when Aziz asks what is in the caves, Forster is foreshadowing the disaster to come. Aziz's lack of experience with and knowledge of the caves contributes to the unfortunate outcome. Moore and Adela have long since lost their excitement and curiosity about seeing India, but they are amused that Mahmoud Ali's butler manages to serve them tea and poached eggs on the train.

The wedding between Adela and Ronny will take place in Simla at the home of her cousins but not until May, so Mrs. Moore's stay has been extended. Adela discusses the plans for the wedding as they travel, but Mrs. Moore is not feeling well and falls asleep.

When daylight dawns, they can see the Marabar. He has arranged for an elephant to take them to the picnic spot near the caves. He tells them that they will be back in time for their tiffin, their midday meal. They have tea near the caves before their expedition, and Aziz and Mrs. Moore reminisce about their meeting at the mosque. Adela is surprised to find that he knows about Mrs. Moore's other children, and she does not. He tells them how honored he is to have them as his guests, that they have honored him and he feels "like the Emperor Babur.

He says that some will say Akbar is the greatest of all, but he was not a true Muslim. He was half Hindu. Adela asks, "But wasn't Akbar's new religion very fine? It was to embrace the whole of India.

She discusses her concerns about becoming like the other women once she has married Ronny. He tells her that she will never be rude to the Indian people because it is not in her nature. Moore does not enjoy the cave visit; she feels suffocated, and there is an echo that disturbs her. She feels that someone has touched her; she is detached from Adela and Aziz and feels frantic.

She makes her way out with some difficulty. Once outside, she realizes that what had touched her had been a baby held on its mother's hip. She knows that there is nothing evil in the cave, but she decides to go and sit in the shade instead of going into another cave.

So Adela and Aziz go on alone. At Mrs. Moore's suggestion, they leave the crowd of villagers behind and take only one servant with them. Part 2: Chapter 14 Analysis The tensions among the various religions in India is very much a part of this story and has played a significant role in the history of India.

When Aziz states that nothing embraces the whole of India, he is highlighting the conflicts and the themes of the story.

Hoping for peace in a country that is made up of so many different religions and cultures is bound to be somewhat futile at best, and it has been the cause of much violence in the twentieth century. Forster deliberately writes a lot of ambiguity into this story, and what happens to Mrs. Moore in the cave is an instance of that. From this time forward, she is no longer herself. Because she is a very spiritual person, we must conclude that what happened was a spiritual crisis of some sort.

Moore acknowledges that the force that she had felt in the cave has a simple explanation, but it doesn't change its effects. She does not recover from this experience. Adela is thinking about the upcoming wedding and her life in Chandrapore. She suddenly comes to the realization that she does not love Ronny. She asks Aziz whether he is married, and he replies in the affirmative and invites her to come and see his wife.

He also tells her he has children and that they are a great pleasure to him. Then she asks him whether he has more than one wife, and he is shocked that she would ask such a question. He is so upset that he turns loose of her hand and goes into a cave by himself. She is not aware of what she has done and, not seeing him, also enters a cave.

Part 2: Chapter 15 Analysis Adela has committed a serious faux pas. This is something a British woman would not ask a Muslim man, and he is deeply offended, so deeply that he must isolate himself in order to recover. Symbolic of the British failure to understand the Indians, she doesn't even know that she has blundered. It's interesting that this character regularly lies or misrepresents the facts.

When he invited Fielding's guests to his house, he knew he could not entertain them there. His wife is dead; Adela cannot come and see her, yet Aziz blithely invites her to come. Forster is using this character to exhibit the enigmatic Indian mind. They hear the sound of an automobile and go to look for it. They see it coming down the Chandrapore Road, but can't see it very well until it comes to a stop immediately below where they are standing; the road ends there.

They hurry back to tell Adela, but they can't find her. They don't know which cave she went into. He chides the servant because he has not kept track of her. Both shout, but to no avail. There are so many caves they have no idea where she might be. Aziz is so distressed that he strikes the servant, who flees.

Then he sees her making her way down the hillside and going to the automobile, speaking to another woman. He comes upon Adela's field glasses and picks them up. He tries to put them over his shoulder, but the strap is broken, so he puts them in his pocket. He goes back and looks in case something else might have been left behind then hears the car engine start up, so he goes back to Mrs. Moore, and Fielding is there. He has come in the car they saw on the road, which is Nancy Derek's car.

Moore wants to know where Adela is, and Aziz says she has gone down to see Nancy. Her chauffeur informs them that the two women have returned to Chandrapore. Fielding feels that something is amiss as they remount the elephant and begin the journey to the train. Aziz, unaware that anything is wrong, is happy; Fielding is worried.

When they arrive in Chandrapore, the Inspector of Police is waiting for them and arrests Aziz, who tries to resist, but Fielding persuades him to go along and goes with him. He says it's obviously a misunderstanding, and they will clear it up. Turton refuses to allow Fielding to go along, and Ronny escorts his mother off the train. We don't know yet why Adela has fled. We don't know what has happened in the cave. We also don't know why Aziz is being arrested.

Suspense is a device that writers use to keep readers reading, and Forster is employing it here. If this were a cliffhanger, the hero would be hanging from the cliff at the end of this chapter.

Fielding insists that it could not be and asks to talk to her. Turton has already decided that an English girl fresh from England has been assaulted on his watch, and he expects Fielding to rally to the banner of race. Fielding wants to know the facts. Part 2: Chapter 17 Analysis This story is probably based at least in part on an actual occurrence in India in during the uproar that followed the Amritsar Massacre See Chapter 1 Analysis.

Marcella Sherwood, an English School Superintendent in Amritsar, was allegedly sexually assaulted in this period of extreme unrest. In earlier versions of this incident, Forster was much more explicit in the sexual aspects of the assault, and the strap of the field glasses was being used to strangle her. In that version, she used the glasses as a weapon to free herself from her attacker.

By the time Forster had revised it for publication, the attack is much more ambiguous, tentative, and tenuous, which makes the climax of this story possible.

The story: Aziz followed her into the cave and made advances, she hit at him with her field glasses, he pulled at them and the strap broke, and that is how she got away. The glasses were in Aziz's pocket when they searched him. She also said there was an echo that frightened her. Fielding says that it doesn't make sense that he would have kept the glasses if he had assaulted her, and McBryde begins to understand that Fielding hasn't bought into the herd mentality that has taken over the Anglo community.

McBryde also points out that they found a letter in Aziz's pocket from a friend who owns a brothel in Calcutta. Fielding objects strongly. Besides, he says, I did that at his age. So had the superintendent of police, but he didn't like the turn the conversation had taken.

Fielding wants to talk to Adela. Now McBryde wants to know why. Fielding replies that he wants to see her on the off chance that she'll recant before the report goes in. Otherwise, McBryde is committed for trial, and the whole thing goes to blazes. Major Callendar denies him the chance to visit with Adela, so he wants to visit with Aziz. The only way he can see Aziz is if the city magistrate permits it. That, of course, is Ronny, so his request is not granted. Reason no longer plays a role in the proceedings.

We will see later that the same can be said about the Indian community. The Fielding character stands out as the voice of objective reason in this standoff between cultures, and religions and plays a pivotal role in the plot. Fielding is not so sure that's a good idea, but Hamidullah is determined. Fielding asks Hamidullah to give Aziz his love, and he goes back to the college.

Hamidullah is surprised that Fielding is taking Aziz's side against his own people. Fielding knows that it will create problems for him, but he is not afraid. Professor Godbole comes to see him and after an exasperatingly roundabout discussion about other things, they discuss the situation with Aziz.

Fielding says he intends to find out what did happen. He does not believe Aziz did what Adela says he did, that it might have been the servant, but he doesn't think it's malice on Adela's part.

He finally gets to see Aziz, but he will not talk to him except to say, "You deserted me. Part 2: Chapter 19 Analysis Fielding's role as mediator, voice of reason, continues in this chapter.

Professor Godbole is dependably inscrutable and noncommittal. While he has the respect of the Indian community, he doesn't effectively play any role in what is going on. While the Anglos consider themselves superior to the Indians, Godbole, a Brahmin, knows he is.

While he doesn't use his superiority in such socially unacceptable actions as the Anglos, particularly the women, do, he also does not play an active role in helping anyone, not even the other Hindus. A meeting is called at the club presided over by the collector, who assures all the women that they are in no danger. Fielding asks about Adela's health, which annoys the people. The women are sent out, and the men continue their meeting.

Then Ronny comes in and addresses them, blaming himself because he allowed the outing to occur. The word comes that Adela is much improved. Now the Major is telling a story he has concocted that Aziz plotted to get Adela alone by getting rid of the servants. They are even saying that Professor Godbole had been bribed to make Fielding late so he couldn't accompany them.

Also, there had been an attempt to suffocate Mrs. Moore in a cave to get rid of her. The Major wants to call in the troops. Everyone had stood up when Ronny came in except Fielding, and he is being questioned.

He asks whether he can make a statement and is allowed to. Aziz to be innocent," he announces. Then he tells them that he is awaiting the verdict of the courts and that if he is pronounced guilty, he will resign his post and leave India. He announces his resignation from the club. He tries to leave the room but is stopped by a soldier.

Ronny tells him to let him go. Part 2: Chapter 20 Analysis The battle lines are clearly drawn, and mass hysteria has taken over the Anglo community. The plot moves relentlessly toward its climax. It's also apparent at this stage that no one is going to win this battle. Even if the Brits manage to convict and punish Aziz, they will lose the important battle of maintaining order and civility in the region. If Aziz is not convicted, the Indians will be in worse shape than they were before the incident occurred.

There will be more distrust, more anger, and more persecution. They will try for bail again since Adela is improved. Part 2: Chapter 21 Analysis Contrast is an effective device that an author uses to highlight some aspect of a story.

In this case, the sounding of drums that signaled the celebration seems ominous in light of what is going on in the city. However, itinerant musicians provide a contrast that irritates some with their cheerful and upbeat melodies but serves as a reminder of the seriousness of the political situation.

With the atmosphere in the city so tense, it doesn't seem a good time for a celebration. McBryde have been picking out of her skin. Her story is that she entered the cave, scratched the wall with her fingernail to start the echo, and a shadow entered down the entrance, shutting off her exit. She hit at him with the glasses, he grabbed them and pulled her around the cave by the strap until it broke, then she escaped.

She feels that it's a lot of nonsense, that she's upset, but she'll get over it. All the women are sympathetic, but Mrs. Moore will have nothing to do with her. Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3.

Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs. Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses.

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Teachers and parents! Struggling with distance learning? Introduction Intro. Themes All Themes. Characters All Characters Dr. Symbols All Symbols. Theme Wheel. Everything you need for every book you read. The way the content is organized and presented is seamlessly smooth, innovative, and comprehensive.

A concise biography of E. Forster plus historical and literary context for A Passage to India. In-depth summary and analysis of every chapter of A Passage to India. Visual theme-tracking, too. Explanations, analysis, and visualizations of A Passage to India 's themes. A Passage to India 's important quotes, sortable by theme, character, or chapter. Description, analysis, and timelines for A Passage to India 's characters.

Explanations of A Passage to India 's symbols, and tracking of where they appear. An interactive data visualization of A Passage to India 's plot and themes. Brief Biography of E. Forster E. Forster was born into a middle-class family in London.

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There are no reviews yet. Be the first one to write a review. Already have an account? Sign in. From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. Literature Poetry Lit Terms Shakescleare. Download this LitChart! Teachers and parents!

Struggling with distance learning? Introduction Intro. Themes All Themes. Characters All Characters Dr. Symbols All Symbols. Theme Wheel. Everything you need for every book you read. The way the content is organized and presented is seamlessly smooth, innovative, and comprehensive. A concise biography of E. Forster plus historical and literary context for A Passage to India. In-depth summary and analysis of every chapter of A Passage to India.

Visual theme-tracking, too. Explanations, analysis, and visualizations of A Passage to India 's themes. A Passage to India 's important quotes, sortable by theme, character, or chapter. Description, analysis, and timelines for A Passage to India 's characters.

Explanations of A Passage to India 's symbols, and tracking of where they appear. An interactive data visualization of A Passage to India 's plot and themes. Brief Biography of E. Forster E. Forster was born into a middle-class family in London. As a child, he inherited a large sum of money from his great-aunt, and was able to live off of this and focus on writing.

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A Passage to India - E. M. Forster * Part 1/2 * Full Audiobook with Chapter guide

WebA Passage to India, novel by E.M. Forster published in and considered one of the author�s finest works. The novel examines racism and colonialism as well as a theme . WebA Passage to India PDF is a novel, written by Edward Morgan Forster and published in Edward Morgan Forster is an English novelist and short-story writer, he focused .